Overview

The purpose of this work is to create a GPS tracker that works for cars with a web administration interface. Web application design is based on existing similar solutions and the needs of potential customers. The GPS tracker is based on the Raspberry Pi 3 board, which is widely available and an ideal learning tool for students who want to learn the basics of software-hardware interactions. The entire work is divided into simple tasks, which are resolved on a regular weekly basis. Students were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The main task for the ST RST group is to assemble a GPS tracker and program based on the Raspberry Pi Zero Board using GPS and GSM modules. The second group should develop a web application that stores and manages the tracker’s data. The entire solution was then tested with real data and evaluated by real users. Students were given questionnaires to provide feedback on this type of group project and the results were mainly positive. Budget and financial pressures are hurting universities and their students as higher education costs continue to rise. In particular, science students rely on computational software such as Wolfram Research’s Mathematician in their research and studies. Software and related syntax are the most useful tools and have the necessary skills in the fields of engineering, mathematics, physics and data science. However, the software is expensive and difficult for colleges and students to afford. With the advent of inexpensive credit card-sized computing devices such as the Raspberry Pi and its partnership with mathematics, the software can now be used at no cost.

However, processing and speed are limited and performance on the Raspberry Pi is affected. Through cluster computing, the execution time of algorithms that use math can be reduced while maintaining a lower cost than the mathematician’s traditional licensing model. This research reports the design and configuration of the Raspberry Pi cluster for use with mathematics, along with the results of performance benchmark tests between algorithms implemented on one node and four nodes. This work contributes significantly to both information systems and science departments to reduce software licensing costs without sacrificing performance. Simply put, this research project provided an opportunity for the undergraduate information system to learn and understand cluster computing in an experiential learning independent study project.

Introduction

Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, primarily to promote computer science teaching in schools. This model was released in February 2012. Since then, Raspberry Pi has grown in popularity not only among students (it targets the market) but also in various fields such as robotics. The main difference between the Raspberry Pi and the Arduino is that the Raspberry Pi is more powerful because it runs the operating system (usually Linux-based) and has built-in USB ports, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and HDMI ports. Many high schools and universities are focusing on the techniques of study, which are already incorporated into their subjects or at least offer courses on raspberry.

Small private universities appeal to students all over the world for a variety of reasons. Small squares, intimate relationships, and condensed courtyards are very common benefits. However, the Bantam Budget is unlikely to list attractive features for any school. Unfortunately, many companies have to make sacrifices when it comes to money, and studies centred on the management of information systems and technology have suffered greatly from a shortage of physical assets. Similarly, after graduation, the cost of higher education continues to rise as students are burdened with more debt. The average annual cost of a four-year university in 1985 was 9 18,910, while students were paid a minimum of 9 37,990 by 2015, an increase that has continued for the past three decades (U.S. Department of Education, 2016). Fortunately, with the advent of the Raspberry Pi computing device, many students around the world have a multi-core system in their palm at a much lower cost than the textbook price. Raspberry Pi is inexpensive and similar to learners and ts beginners, but their primary drawback is their inability to process complex computations at any speed, allowing faster execution times and greater reproducibility.

Various scientists who use mathematicians, engineers, and mathematicians who rely on powerful processing units, produce the “3D Symbolic Mathematical Computation Program”, 3D models capable of processing visual and aesthetic data. , And there are plenty of other things to do with each other. Varieties of Farms (Trustees of California State University, 2017). In the past, mathematics was a tool used by well-funded institutions. Licensing for Mathematics is a premium price tag, unlike the tools needed to take advantage of its functionality. Most organizations with full funding for hardware can still limit themselves to licensing only certain workstations.

Raspberry Pi has taken multicore computing into the hands of many financially inefficient organizations, and the implementation of the free Mathematics license for the Raspberry operating system has allowed the spread of computing research on a small budget. However, the Raspberry Pi does not have the resource-intensive features of mathematics, requiring users to find ways to optimize their smaller Raspberry Pi for more complex calculations. It uses the mathematical remote kernel function, which allows users to pool resources from other Raspberry Pi devices on the same network with a compatible mathematical license, and operate Raspberry Pi devices in a cluster. A cluster is defined as a group of identical or similar computers that connect to a computer network, pool resources, or run applications to provide services (Bird, 2016). Configuring computers in the cluster will increase processing speed. This clustering technique makes it possible for students and professionals to distribute workloads on machines to solve complex equations and to extend applications of Raspberry Pi computers. The research project was conducted mainly as a senior information system independent information project. This paper provides a better understanding of cluster computing and its potential benefits to higher education. This work seeks to create laboratory exercises to teach cluster computing in computer architecture, networking, and infrastructure courses.

What is a Raspberry Pi?

Raspberry Pi is the name of a series of single-board computers created by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to educate the public on computing and make computing easier.

The Raspberry Pi was launched in 2012 and has since released a number of iterations and variations. The original Pi has a single-core 700 MHz CPU and only 256 MB RAM, and the latest model has a quad-core 1.4GHz CPU with 1 GB of RAM. The main price of the Raspberry Pi is always $ 35 and all models are reduced to $ 35 or less, including Piero Zero, which costs just $ 5.Worldwide, people use Raspberry Paste to learn programming skills, create hardware projects, manage home automation, and use in industrial applications.

The Raspberry Pi is a very cheap computer that runs Linux, but it offers a set of GPIO (General Purpose Input / Output) pins that allow the control of electronic components and the Internet of Things (IoT) for physical computing.

What’s the Raspberry Pi Foundation?

The Raspberry Pi Foundation puts the power of computing and digital manufacturing in the hands of people around the world. It offers low-cost, high-performance computers that people use to learn, solve problems and have fun. It and Teach and Education to help more people to do computing and digital – it develops free resources to help people learn about computing and make things with computers and train other people to learn.

Code Club and CoderDojo are part of the Raspberry Pi Foundation, but these programs are platform-agnostic (not tied to Raspberry Pi hardware). Raspberry Pi supports these clubs and helps develop networks around the world to ensure that every child has access to learning about computing. Similarly, Raspberry Pi is a Raspberry Pi-centric event where people of all ages can learn about the Raspberry Pi and share ideas and projects.

Is the Raspberry Pi open source?

Raspberry Pi runs on an open-source ecosystem: it runs Linux (various distributions) and runs its main supported operating system, Raspbian, a suite of open source and open-source software. The Raspberry Pi Foundation helps to release its own software as open-source, along with the Linux kernel and many other open-source projects.

Raspberry Pi plans have been released, but the board is not open hardware. The Raspberry Pi Foundation relies on proceeds from the sale of raspberry powder for its charity work.

What can you do with a Raspberry Pi?

Some people buy Raspberry Pi for code learning and those who already use the code can learn electronics code for physical projects. Raspberry Pi opens up possibilities for you to create your own home automation project, which is popular among the people in the open-source community, which keeps you from using a proprietary closed system.

RASPBERRY PLATFORM

The Raspberry Pi is a small, inexpensive single-board computer that is used to design and develop fun and practical IT devices as you learn programming and computer hardware. Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer running the operating system. The Sial operating system is a Russian, Debian-based Linux distribution, but it has the potential to use third-party Ubuntu, Windows 10, or other operating systems. Each Raspberry Pi operating system has a card ash card slot that can be used as a storage device. In addition to the previously mentioned ports, the Raspberry Pi supports general-purpose input/output (GPIO) pins for low-level output, which is supportedCommon protocols such as IICs. The main programming languages ​​advertised are Python and Scratch, but Raspberry also supports many other languages. The Raspberry Pi can be used with the Arduino module.

Raspberry Pi, you wonder if they forgot to include the ‘case’ / you want a machine with ‘Inside Out’ chips and look with chips. Connectivity appears, but this is the whole point of the Raspberry Pi, which is not the accepted view of computing – instead, the Raspberry Pi is designed for those who want to build things rather than buy and use them. At a cost of about $ 40, the Raspberry Pi chip (SoC) has a Broadcom BCM2835 system, including an ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz processor, a Video core IV GPU and 256 megabytes of RAM. It does not have a built-in hard disk or solid-state drive but uses an SD card for booting and long-term storage. It supports Python as the main programming language. Many other operating systems, including Android 4.0, Firefox OS and Google Chrome OS, are ported to the Raspberry Pi. There are plans to add a prototype camera module to promote robotics applications. It is also important to understand what raspberry pie is. The Raspberry Pi is not a ‘media replacement’ machine, however, it works well as a media server. Despite its cost, it is not a ‘poor man’ computer; This is not a ‘stripped-down version’ of a computer. Instead, the Raspberry Pi technology can be seen as a machine designed to reintroduce the I phone generation to the pleasures of hacking/tampering. Its philosophy owes much to Lego, ‘V, the stage of making things, limited by .h. How is the community using the Raspberry Pi? The Raspberry Pi is a platform, and the community is using the Raspberry Pi in unexpected ways, as anyone can imagine with the actual platform. Here are a few examples:

  • (Raspberry Pi is used as a computing platform for processing raw data from an individual (weather station) weather station.) Dragonair is a weather station in Cheshire, England based on the Maplin USB Touch Weather Station, which is broadcast on the Internet in 24 hours and 10 minutes. Running modern follicle is connected to the B Raspberry. Raspberry Pi USB link is connected through a base station. It is run by the software to collect data every hour Python Python. The raw data will be processed by paivs and pushed to the website.
  • Among the ‘best’ uses for the Raspberry Pi, viii we look at media streamers, arcade machines, home automation, car automation and of course robots.
  • As the Raspberry Pi is inexpensive, Raspberry Pi computers can be used in more complex situations, such as on-board computers for small satellites.
  • Raspberry Pi can be used to hunt atmospheric meteors in balloons, and for the same reason, because they are cheap computers, they are used to observe a large number of unusual/anomalous events (eg meteorites).
  • A project called ‘FishPi’xi has developed an Autonomous Marine Surface Vehicle, which has crossed the Atlantic Ocean.

Raspberry Hardware

The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through a number of different versions of memory capacity and peripheral-device support. This block diagram illustrates the B and B + models; Models A, A + and PI are zero, but no Ethernet and USB hub components. The Ethernet adapter is internally connected to an additional USB port. In the A, A + and PI Zero models, the USB port is directly connected to the system on the chip (SoC). On the P1 model B + and later models, the USB / Ethernet chip has a five-port USB hub, with four ports available, while the P1 model B only offers two. In Pi Zero, the USB port is also directly connected to the SoC, but it uses a micro USB (OTG) port. Unlike all other pie models, the 40 pin GPIO connector is placed through the holes in the pin locations with the solder at zero. Pi Zero WH treats it.

Performance

Operating at 700 MHz by default, the first-generation Raspberry Pi delivers real-world performance equivalent to 0.041 GFLOPS.  At the CPU level, performance is similar to the 1997-99 300 MHz Pentium II. GPU 1 provides graphics processing of Gpixel / s or 1.5 Gtexel / s, or general-purpose computing performance of 24-GFLOPS. The Raspberry Pi’s graphical capabilities are similar to the 2001 Xbox One performance.

The Raspberry Pi 2 V1.1 runs on a quad-core Cortex-A7 CPU at 900 MHz and 1 Gigi RAM. It is described as 4-6 times more powerful than its predecessor. The GPU is similar to the original.  In parallel benchmarks, the Raspberry Pi 2 V1.1 is 14 times faster than the Raspberry Pi Model B +. The Raspberry Pi 3 with a quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor is described as ten times the performance of the Raspberry Pi 1.

Networking

Models A, A + and PIR do not have an Ethernet circuitry and are usually connected to the network using an external user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter. In B and B + models, the Ethernet port is provided via the built-in USB Ethernet adapter using the SMSC LAN9514 chip. The Raspberry Pi 3 and Pi Zero W (wireless) has 2.4 GHz WiFi 802.11n (150 Mbit / s) and Bluetooth 4.1 (24 Mbit / s), based on the Broadcom BCM43438 FullMac chip, which allows monitor mode. Implemented without official approval. [59] and Pi3 have 10/100 Mbit / s Ethernet port through unofficial firmware patching. The Raspberry Pi 3B + includes dual-band IEEE 80211b / g / n / AC WiFi, Bluetooth 4.2 and Gigabit Ethernet (limited to about 300 bit / s via a USB 2.0 bus between it and Sosi). The Raspberry Pi 4 has a full Gigabit Ethernet (throughput is not limited by the USB chip.

Special Purpose Features

The Pi Zero can be used as a USB device or “USB gadget” which can be plugged into another computer via a USB port. It can be configured in many ways, for example, to show as a serial device or an Ethernet device. Although originally required for a software patch, it was added to the Mainline Raspian distribution in May 2016.The above 3 can boot from flash drive to USB. Due to firmware restrictions on other models, only the boards above 2B v1.2, 3A +, 3B and 3B + can do this.

ArduinoVs Raspberry PI (Difference between these two)

Arduino:

  • Arduino boards are actually microcontrollers, but the form is very easy to use.
  • Have you ever worked with PIC Microcontroller or Atmel or 8051 Microcontroller?
  • If you have worked, to create projects on these microcontrollers, you first need to have your basic circuitry with a crystal oscillator and pull resistors, capacitors, etc.
  • In addition, you also need programmer hardware to upload your code to these microcontrollers.
  • But in Arduino, you don’t need to use any of these. The Arduino Build comes with a programmer and a basic circuit.
  • So, all you have to do is plug in your Arduino board and start testing your code.
  • So, to put it simply, the Arduino is nothing more than a simple microcontroller, but it’s easy to use the way it works.

Raspberry Pi:        

  • Now if we talk about Raspberry Pi, it’s a complete computer.
  • Sounds a lot more powerful than the Arduino, but it is undecided
  • But yeah the Raspberry Pi is like a small computer, obviously not comparable to your laptop or PC, but really powerful.
  • And its beauty is cheap in its small size and price.
  • The latest Raspberry Pi has about 3GB of RAM, which is enough. I am using Note 3 Mobile and it has 3GB RAM. So, now you can see what its capacity is.
  • As such, it is a small computer, so you may be wondering what its operating system is. When it comes out of the factory there is no operating system on it but anyone can install any operating system on Linux, Windows etc.
  • Normally it is used with Linux but I have seen many online tutorials where Windows is also installed on the Raspberry Pi.

Therefore, from the above discussion, we conclude that the Arduino is a microcontroller and the Raspberry Pi is a small computer. Next, we will consider the Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi variety.

Types of ArduinoVs Raspberry Pi

Arduino:

  • The first board to be developed by the Arduinocompany was the Arduino UNO, which was a simple Atmega microcontroller, but later, they developed several new boards.
  • For example, we now have the Arduino Ethernet Shield and the ArduinoWiFi Shield, which can be used to provide internet access to our system.
  • Recently they have also developed an Arduino UEAN board which also supports Linux like Raspberry Pi.
  • The Arduino DU is another 32-bit board.
  • So, in short, there are many Arduino boards and you can accomplish anything by combining different boards.
  • If you want to control your fan over WiFi, you can use the Arduino Uno with the ArduinoWiFi Shield and you’re ready to control it.

Raspberry Pi

  • There are no special boards for different functions like the Raspberry Pi Arduino.
  • The Raspberry Pi is not only a board but its designs.
  • The Raspberry Pi once had the Model A, but they added a few more functions, such as raising the RAM end, so that we have the Raspberry Pi 2 and the Raspberry Pi 3.
  • So, you can think of the Raspberry Pi as a mobile, whose designs come with more improvements.
  • As I mentioned earlier, the Raspberry Pi is a small computer so it already has WiFi, Ethernet, USB host and so on.

ArduinoVs Raspberry Pi – Which one you should prefer ?

For a new engineering student who started his project. He always intends to use one of these two. Should someone go with the Arduino or someone starts working on the Raspberry Pi? This is a really big question if you are new to this field. So, let me tell you one thing first, there is nothing better than another, and both the Arduino and Raspberry Pi have their own significance. What you need to use now depends entirely on the nature of your project. So, let’s consider these two boards of projects. One can assume that the Arduino vs Raspberry Pi comparison is taking an interesting turn now.

Arduino:

  • Whenever you are working on some pure hardware related project where you need to use different sensors, you should always move your motor or actuator. Hardware equipment.
  • That is why in most electrical, electronics, mechatronics and mechanical projects, Arduino is preferred.
  • That doesn’t mean you can’t control the sensors or motors in the Raspberry Pi, but it does have two problems with the Raspberry Pi and is much easier on the Arduino.
  • Also, with Arduino, you can install as many sensors as you want. Simply put, there are many IOs in Arduino.
  • Once I had to work on a project that needed to control fifty relays, in that case, I used the Arduino Mega 2560 which had 60 input/output pins.
  • But you can’t control the Fifty Relays with the Raspberry Pi.
  • Therefore, in all hardware projects where you do not need to do cloud computing, using Arduino boards is always a priority.

Raspberry Pi:

  • Raspberry Pi is mostly used in computer software projects.
  • Just like a project where you need to do cloud computing or send data over some network, in these types of projects, your first choice should be on the Raspberry.
  • I once had a project in which I wanted to create an online home automation system.
  • Therefore, in such projects, we need to interface some of the sensors we can with the Raspberry Pi as there are some input/output pins.
  • The main part of such projects is to send sensor data to some networks, so Raspberry Pi is the right choice here.
  • However, we can also use Arduino Yuen in projects like the Raspberry Pi so that its use is more flexible when it comes to cloud computing.
  • Similarly, if you want to design some face recognition projects, the Raspberry Pi is useful because you can easily install Open OS as its OS (Linux), we can install whatever you want.

Hacking Education: Using Raspberry Pi to Teach Computing ‘Inside Out’

In view of that sentiment, we have expanded on the idea of ​​hacking education, that is, teaching children computing. Some fundamental changes in computing are happening around us. The last two decades have seen the dominance of business-led computing, which means that major innovations in computing have emerged from the company and then moved into the consumer domain. With mobile devices, this has changed. For the first time, we have seen consumer technology (mobile phones) evolve into the mainstream, including the use of businesses. Current trends have many implications, including education, especially in the teaching of programming languages. Programming language * “is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine. Today, in most cases, that machine is a computer. The languages ​​that make up the program can be used to create programs that use the machine to control the behaviour and/or algorithms to express it. Until the advent of personal computers, thousands of different programming languages ​​have been created, and the nature of programming IT is changing between machines, programs and algorithms, software, telecommunications, mobile phones, videogames, MPs. Play 3 Yarns, digital cameras, DVD players, GPS receivers, printers, home appliances, RANO (microwave) are already ’embedded’, while ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, home automation equipment, transport systems and medical equipment (PET, CT, MRI), etc. , This is just the beginning. Through hardware such as the open-source Raspberry Pi and the Arduino, is creating a whole new class of grassroots devices that use computing power in radically different ways. Against this backdrop, we ask the question – how does computing education change? In the primary focus of computing, for example with the Logo programming language,  computing is a ‘structured’.  Constructivism is a learning process that enables the student to experience the environment first, giving the student reliable, reliable knowledge. It is necessary to work on the student environment to acquire and test new knowledge. In other words, the student ‘constructs’ the environment and is often environmentally friendly. Therefore, computers (both hardware and software) are seen as an enabler, that is, a platform to create a new one. ‘Computing as a platform’ becomes the foundation of innovation because the users of that platform create innovation, which is unforeseen. However, we still teach computing in a limited way. If we consider the ‘experiment of thought’: if we ‘turn the computer’ in, how can we stimulate learning? With the proliferation of mobile devices, most of us agree that we live in a ‘post-PC’ world. But the changes are far deeper than the use of mobile devices. In many ways, we have the responsibility of becoming an ‘Inside Out Computer’ through devices like the Raspberry Pi. The use of open-source hardware and software also leads to a basic creative approach to computing, where we can explore ‘under the hood’.

Respberry

RASPBERRY MODELS

The Raspberry Pi has evolved through several iterations, so different models vary in memory capacity, processor and peripheral device support. Processor speeds range from 700 MHz single-core to 1200 MHz quad-core, memory ranges from 256MB to 1GB, and different models may have different ports.

There’s No Such Thing As the Raspberry Pi!

When people talk about the Raspberry Pi, they usually think of a small credit card computer that has different I / O ports, and for very specific applications, including document writing, web surfing and writing programs. However, there is not a single computer called the Raspberry Pi! Raspberry Pi Foundation Raspberry Pi Foundation refers to the range of computers that the Raspberry Pi Foundation produces.

So, you’ve decided that you’re going to design and build a Raspberry Pi project, but you’re not sure the pie is right for you. Fortunately for you, in this article, we will look at the various pie models in the market, compare them, and see how each pie is unique in its own way.

Decide Your Requirements

When you are in the decision-making process, you usually write down your needs; Computers are no exception! Your first task is to determine what is most important for your project. Such requirements are usually reduced to the following list.

Speed: The processing power of the system

Memory: How much RAM and ROM or HD space the system has

Size and Weight: The physical size and weight of the computing system

Cost: The financial cost of the system

I / O: How much I / O support is available

Speed

Speed ​​is sometimes the most important factor in the computing landscape. The faster the computer is, the more it can work before it slows down and responds. The Raspberry Pi range computers are much faster than microcontrollers such as PIC, AVR, and STM, but there is a noticeable difference between Pi computers.

The first Raspberry Pi computer, the Model B, had a quad-core 32-bit ARM Cortex processor, while the B, the cheaper version released after the Model A, had a single-core 700 MHz ARM processor. This means that the Raspberry Pi B can perform four tasks at once on its separate cores, while the Model C on the single-core is 30 per cent faster than Task A (although, for many reasons, it is larger). Subsequent models, such as the Raspberry Pi 3B, have a 1.2Ghz 64-bit quad-core processor, which is faster than the Raspberry Pi 2 but can handle larger data sizes. Other top computers, such as Compute Range, have the same core speed from 700MHz to 1.2.

Memory

Memory in the computing environment is important if you want to run large programs. For example, operating systems are notorious for using large amounts of RAM. Therefore, maximizing RAM is not a bad thing if one is going to use it. The Raspberry Pi has 256MB and 512MB of RAM, 1GB of Raspberry 2 and 3B; However, it is shared with the GPU. The RAM size of computer devices ranges from 512MB to 1GB, with more modern computers having more memory. Therefore, if RAM is important, you may need to look at a top-of-the-range Raspberry Pi computer like the Raspberry 3B or Compute Module 3.

Size and weight

For most users, this requirement does not apply, as all Raspberry computers are already very small and lightweight. However, some projects may have stringent requirements, in this case, the Raspberry Pi computing. Compute modules, however, come in DDR-like packages, which means they need a host PCB to match, so they can connect to I / O devices and power. In the end, it is bigger and heavier than using A or B on the Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi Zero is the smallest pie computer with USB / HDMI and SD card slots including I / O. However, Zero has less RAM and processing capacity than the Raspberry 3B.

I / O

If you want your computer to do office work, such as writing letters and sending emails, using a laptop or PC is the ideal option. Raspberry Pi computers are commonly used because I / O is required. Raspberry Pi A and B computers are great for connecting to external circuits and devices because they have pin headers. 1 A has 8 GPIOs, while +1 A and B computers have 17 GPIOs. Compute modules have more GPIOs up to 46 GPIOs, which are suitable for industrial applications. Interestingly, the Raspberry Pi Zero, despite its price and size, has 17 GPIOs like the Model B.

Networking

Comparing GPIO, memory, and CPU processing power are all fine, but the most significant difference between different Raspberry Pi computers is their network capabilities. The first models, A and A +, lacked networking capabilities, while 1B and 2B models had an Ethernet port. But not every location has Ethernet access, which comes with the Model 3B integrated wireless network adapter. Due to the integrated Wi-Fi IC, users of Model 3B who want to pass the CE and FCC confirmation have some problems, which is why the Raspberry Pi Foundation recently developed the Model 3B +, which includes Wi-Fi circuitry. The house has metal armour and was designed to meet CE and FCC requirements. Computer modules and Zero models do not come with Internet capabilities, there is an integrated Wi-Fi module, with the exception of Zero Wireless.

Raspberry Pi models are great, but there are several to choose from. So which one should you choose for your next Raspberry Pi project?

A. Raspberry Pi 1 Model A+

 The Raspberry Pi 1 is a low-cost version of the Model A + Model A + Raspberry Pi. It was launched in November 2014 instead of the original Model A. It has a standard 40 GPIO pin, micro SD card slot, and HDMI. , 3,5mm audio jack and composite video, a display interface and 1xUSB.

B. Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+

The Model B + debuted in July 2014 and replaced the original Model B. It has 40 GPIO pins, 4x USB 2.0, MicroSD card slot, 3,5mm audio jack and composite video, display interface, camera interface, HDMI and Ethernet port. Since then it has been replaced with the Raspberry Pi 2 Model B.          

C. Raspberry Pi 2 Model B

Raspberry Pi 2 Model B represents the second generation of the Raspberry Pi board. It was launched in February 2015. It has a 900MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 CPU and 1GB of RAM compared to its predecessor. Other special కే action and form factors are similar to the Raspberry Pi 1 Model B +.

D. Raspberry Pi 3 Model B

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B is currently the latest, third-generation board from the Raspberry Pi series and was launched in February 2016. Compared to its predecessor, it has quadcore 1,2GHz Broadcom BCM2837 64bit CPU, BCM43438 wireless LAN, and BLE onboard and upgraded micro USB power source up to 2,5A.

E. Raspberry Pi Zero

The Raspberry Pi Zero was released in November 2015 instead of the cheaper Raspberry Pi 1 Model A +. It has 1GHz single-core CPU, 512MB RAM, mini HDMI port, 2x micro USB port (one for power input) and standard 40 GPIO pins. As a low-cost model, it does not have any Ethernet circulation, so it must be connected to the network on an external USB adapter. However, it is possible to establish a connection to the PC via a standard micro USB cable.

F. Raspberry Pi Zero W

Launched in February 2017, the Raspberry Pi Zero W is an extension of the original Raspberry Pi Zero with additional Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity. Other technical features remain unchanged.

What Raspberry Pi models have been released?

There have been three generations of Raspberry Pis: Pi 1, Pi 2, and Pi 3, and there has generally been a Model A and a Model B of most generations. Model A is a cheaper variant and tends to have reduced RAM and ports like USB and Ethernet. The Pi Zero is a spinoff of the original (Pi 1) generation, made even smaller and cheaper.

Model (release date)Price
Pi 1 Model B (2012)$35
Pi 1 Model A (2013)$25
Pi 1 Model B+ (2014)$35
Pi 1 Model A+ (2014)$20
Pi 2 Model B (2015)$35
Pi Zero (2015)$35
Pi 3 Model B (2016)$35
Pi Zero W (2017)$35
Pi 3 Model B+ (2018)$35
Pi 3 Model A+ (2019)$25

EDUCATION MODEL FOR THE RASPBERRY PI TECHNOLOGY

To be able to successfully implement Raspberry Pi into the education process, several different tasks needed to be set:

• Presentation of an interesting project which can act as a real-life job work, to prepare students for the future;

• Division of the students into two groups – one focused mainly on the hardware and the other on the web application;

 • Education model creation as guidelines which will be used for the duration of the course;

 • Project evaluation techniques and also student input evaluation techniques, to provide the valuable feedback.

V. REAL-LIFE PROJECT IN AN EDUCATION COURSE

A small computer used for many types of projects; the Raspberry Pi Tinctures have long been favoured by engineers and tinkerers because of its low cost, flexibility and simplicity. However, until recently, this incredibly small computer (which is no bigger than a credit card) has been recognized as a big boon to education; Digital leaders are using it to promote learning and collaboration in the classroom.

The value of using Raspberry Pi in the classroom

The Raspberry Pi can be used to aid computer-based learning, but its value extends beyond STEM classes, with the potential to enhance education across disciplines.

Introduce technology, computing and programming to students

The simplicity of the Raspberry Pi makes it easy to get started, helps students use basic digital, analogue and electromechanical components and provides insights into common programming concepts. When combined with the Visual Programming Tool Scratch, students can also create Raspberry Pi animations and games without having to learn code. Once these simple skills are understood, teachers can use them to determine more complex tasks.

Encourage collaborative learning

The inventors of tomorrow are unlikely to be inspired by activities that involve a solitary person on a computer screen. Instead, students need the freedom to experiment, hack, and collaborate. Raspberry Pi is a great way to use technology to deliver more multi-sensory classrooms based on communication, innovation and collaboration skills.

When it comes to raspberry pie, students learn the most by joining hands with the kit. Therefore, it makes sense for teachers to create collaborative teams that fit well in the skill level so that none of the students are present. They can also provide rotating roles to students on a project basis (e.g. coders, builders, project managers, quality assurance, etc.). Classroom layout is also important, and groups should be encouraged to work in spaces designed to encourage collaborative learning and exchange of ideas.

Encourage accounting thinking

When it comes to the educational benefits of raspberry pie, it’s not always about the code. Through its structure, the tool assists with skills in computational thinking and decomposition, pattern recognition, logical thinking, logic, and problem-solving.

Fire Imagination

There are many Raspberry Pi competitions, schools can take part, helping to stimulate learning and creativity by diluting young. For example, the PA Consulting Raspberry Pi competition under this topic can help people live healthier lives. As a robot dog, students have developed innovative solutions to everyday challenges that can help motivate children to exercise, help physically disabled people communicate with their computers, a device to monitor sleep quality, an automatic prescription dispenser and anal sensor.

Here are just some examples of how you can use the Raspberry Pi in your lessons:

  • Make a habitat for birds and beasts. By making a bird box or insect habitat and connecting an inbuilt camera via a Pi, pupils can observe creatures in their natural habitats
  • Write a symphony. Sonic Pi is a sound synthesizer designed to support both computing and music lessons within schools. Pupils can compose and perform their own songs in an incredible range of styles
  • Create a Raspberry Pi-powered sorting hat. Most children love Harry Potter, so build a lesson plan that will educate and engage by creating your very own classroom sorting hat using the Pibrella add-on board
  • Build a robot. With a Pi, a couple of motors and a motor board, students can learn how to create their very own robot
  • Create virtual pets. With Pixel Pet, pupils can use a Pi to code and create a range of furry friends. Students can design the pet, take it for a walk, and create science experiments, games and more.
  • Create a supercomputer. With some Lego and multiple Pis, your class could even build its own supercomputer. Although you would need a lot of Pis!

Facilitating deeper levels of engagement in the classroom, the Raspberry Pi can also be used to help pupils think about how they can solve real-world problems. For example, by using the Pi edition of the popular game Minecraft, teachers can challenge pupils to tackle issues such as sustainability.

While Raspberry Pi tech was once the province of more adventurous computing teachers and afterschool clubs, it’s now becoming an essential classroom tool. However, to feel comfortable with this tech, and make the most of it as a resource, many educators will need guidance on how to best use the kit.

In course to learn about the Raspberry learning, students had to create a functional GPS tracker for the car with a web application. Students are divided into two groups based on their choice. The group built on the Raspberry Pi Zero focuses on GPS tracker hardware. Raspberry Pi’s main programming language is Python, as there are many libraries written in Python for the Raspberry Pi, which are of course useful. Students had to assemble and program the hardware to send data to the Web API via GPRS.

The second group is the web application program, which includes an API for car, user, device and driver administration, live maps, travel lists, user groups and GPS trackers. This is done with ASP.NET and AngularJS, as both are very popular methods for building websites and providing many libraries and tutorials. The students are given a named HTML template. Null is included in the product.

Raspberry Pi education kits: how they can help develop IT skills

Computer science in school

Students studying the new computing curriculum must understand the basics of computer science, analyze and solve problems by applying computational techniques, write a program for these problems, and solve and start problems, including technically new or unfamiliar technology. Users of Information and Communication Technology. The course is delivered at all major stages. Raspberry Pi computers are at the heart of these new programs, and in fact the Pi’s latest model – the B + – can power more external devices without the need for a dedicated power source, and more connectors to help it connect. For other devices

In fact, despite its success – over a million units sold in the first year of availability – the upside is the same power and inexpensive power as the Apple iPhone. Users can run apps on it, but the beauty of it is that it can be integrated with other things via GPIO (general purpose input and output) pins. It can also be used properly at the command level, making it ideal for younger users to learn how computers can perform certain tricks and tasks, and to help older students learn how to program at a command level.

Yet, because of its affordability, it minimizes any disruptions based on personal wealth: even a relatively inexpensive £ 200 computing device can prove to be an affordable purchase for many young people. If the Raspberry Pi is lost or broken, the impact is not equivalent to the equivalent damage of a laptop or tablet PC device.

To set and meet expectations, many suppliers of the new curriculum are now offering educational or teaching materials designed to help teachers deliver a new curriculum. They differ in structure and content but are designed to focus on a project-led approach to raspberry pie-based work. “We’ve looked at the specifics of the course and what we’ve seen are problems,” says Timothy Jones, marketing manager at retailer Wish Track. It is worth noting that this product-set includes everything except a monitor, with classes starting at the top and completing six units of work.

“We wanted students to be able to easily identify coding, scratch, ease of use, and variables that affect how the kit is used and how the commands work. For example, with a simple alarm, the variable must be set to On or Off and the output buzzer to turn on or off.”

It is important to make the use straightforward. For example, the primary use of scratch coding (Scratch is a multimedia writing tool) is to ensure that young students can drag and drop commands so that their programming and commands (dragging-and-drop) are still affected. On something else.

Little Pi’s shop’s falsetto, “for example, ‘hello’, ‘wait for a second’, and so on” is not used for scratch syntax and is, therefore, a sequence of click and drag commands. “It’s good because young kids can meet quickly and it can see the impact of their programming right away. It’s the whole concept of doing something.”

Teacher training

It’s not just physical equipment. One of the main constraints of the new curriculum is that most teachers may have limited experience when it comes to computational skills.

Therefore, it is challenging to provide relevant training, workshops, curriculum and other ideas on how to deliver the course. Some sites also have forums to discuss ideas and issues with experts and other users. “We think that 90 per cent of teachers have little or no skills in programming or computer science, so we have free workshops to help bridge this gap, which we are trying to get CPD accreditation for,” Fawcett explains. “Workshops also give us feedback on how to make our kit more user-friendly – something we feel is important from the start of the process.”

4 ways the Raspberry Pi is being used in education

The Raspberry Pi is a small computer that can be used for a wide variety of projects and has been introduced as a major boon to education due to its flexibility and simplicity. Although PCPro magazine claimed the pie was “collecting dust” in classrooms in January 2014, the product did not stop. The utility map looks great and the Raspberry Pi 2 was recently released.

In February of this year, the Raspberry Pi Foundation announced the launch of a mentoring program for 16-21-year-olds. Here are four more ways to expand education and the tech community.

1.       The education fund

The fund was announced in April 2014. Organizations may apply if they are working on improving computational education for children, as well as on other topics such as STEM or creative activities. They also accept applications focused on teacher training. The fund has 1 million (about $ 1.5 million) to be distributed among eligible applicants. The site describes the process:

To promote sustainability and wider community engagement, the fund operates on a match funding basis, providing the foundation with up to 50% of the total estimated cost. Successful applicants prove they have the financial means to fund the remainder of the estimated cost. Co-funding can come from a variety of sources, including other charitable foundations, public funds, private individuals, corporate donations or crowdsourcing. We only support projects that can demonstrate a credible plan of implementation and we can adequately track and audit the use of funds.

P is focusing on the Indiegogo campaign for education in Afghanistan in 2013. Nature Bites is also a recipient of an organization that strives to connect people with nature with technology. Through its match-funding strategy, the fund finds groups dedicated to their benefit and helps them meet their goals.

2.       Picademy

One conflict identified in education is that students are more aware of computing than their teachers. Teaching is a daunting task, working long hours – where does it take time to get up to date with the latest technologies? In an interview with the above education team, it was well proven that saying, “Look, teach this,” or that it was not a matter of budget expansion. Pick Academy aims to help with this – teachers can apply through their website and 24 will be accepted. The two-day teaching is independent and will take place at the company’s Cambridge headquarters. While there, they focus on the use of raspberry pie in the classroom and assume there is no prior knowledge. The site features a 6-minute video, with highlights of the 2014 event.

3.       Make something with the Raspberry Pi

If you’d like to practice on your Pi and need some project ideas, head to the Make page where you’ll find 22 projects, ranging from an infrared bird box to a grandpa scarer. You may want to start learning the basics mathematics or be a Visual Basic programmer heading to Python. There are 11 others in addition to these projects on the learning site.

Often, people don’t know where to start when they learn something new, and they don’t want to pay for what they don’t even know for sure. This gives education some free ways to dip your toe in, which helps to ensure that more people are trying to dive in completely.

4.       Geek Gurl Diaries

Carrie Anne Philbin heads the Raspberry Pi Foundation’s educational team. Before long, however, he started his YouTube tutorials. We all know that technically male/female ratios aren’t great, but efforts like Carrie can help. It is reaching out and growing in society through simple language and easy access.

In fact, the Raspberry Pi doesn’t appeal to anyone like any technology. But it has entered the fiercest since 2012 with sales of five million units. If you’re interested in learning more about the pie, see if you can find a jam event.

STEM Education and Critical Thinking with the Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi is a revolutionary computing platform: basically an inexpensive single-board computer designed to enable people of all ages to explore computing and learn programming. Due to its low cost ($ 5- $ 35) and open, flexible hardware, it has been adopted by a global community of DIY ts supporters, educators, researchers, hackers and other manufacturers. Most people use it for electronics and Internet of Things projects that connect to the web via Ethernet or WiFi.

The show and the hands-on display effectively showcase the Raspberry Pi and its potential. Warren Jasper, professor and director of the Textile Engineering Program, demonstrates several projects he has created with the Raspberry Pi, advising attendees to start the project and connect with the NCSU network. He also discusses teaching with the Raspberry Pi and the benefits of programming and making devices for instructors and students.

This is an opportunity to learn more about NCSU Libraries Makerspace resources, including Raspberry Pi kits available through our Technology Lending Service. We have been lending up since 2013 and are currently upgrading and adding to our group of kits.

Top 7 Reasons of Using Raspberry Pi in STEM Education

Kids are curious, they like to experiment. A good teacher is one who supports this curiosity by using useful tools to help children learn. The Raspberry Pi is such a valuable tool that gives children first contact to make programming more fun. Creating projects based on raspberry is a great way to teach children how they look around work, and the cherry on the cake can make these things on their own. Computer education is important for children because everything around them is computerized in one way or another. Teachers can help students learn to use the computer, observe the action behind the output they receive on the computer screen, and learn about what they bring to the computer screen. Here are the top 7 reasons to use raspberry pie to educate children of all ages.

1. Raspberry Pi can help kids make interesting projects

Isn’t it exciting for a child to use a computer that he has fully prepared? Raspberry Pi provides this support for children to create a replica of the computing machine they see around them. The RPI community, which focuses on how to integrate computers with a child learning environment, introduced the DIY Model of Education, where Raspberry Pi is used to show children how a spreadsheet works. This basic knowledge of applications etc. a. Computers make children more confident about the technology world and they may one day become a creator without becoming mere learners.

2. Learning the storage function

The computer is a big storehouse of data; we all know of various storage solutions that are being used with a computer. For example, SD card, etc. Raspberry Pi can be connected with an SD card or Micro SD Card or a USB drive to add more storage space to it. Thus, kids can be made comfortable with the idea of using a computer system as a storage solution using Raspberry Pi.

3. Learning about space exploration projects

Every third child wants to be a scientist and go to the moon. This little dream of spreading wings beyond the horizon is possible with the Raspberry Pi. The Raspberry Pi Lego model makes children’s dreams come true. Although this does not make it to the moon, children who use this model can fly a small balloon up to 35 kilometres. Therefore, learning to use satellites fun is a beautiful start to a big dream that will inspire you to practice your whiskey in the future. Using models to help children incorporate concepts and make them more believable.

4. Weather Forecast

The purpose of STEM education is to teach children the concept behind what they see in their daily lives. The most common thing children see is the weather. The sun, the rain, the snow – all these are curiosities. The Raspberry Pi box can be turned into a small weather station using Python programming, which allows it to interact with USB-connected weather stations. The result is that every day, you can predict the weather for the next few days by telling your child about the temperature of the day.

5. Using Raspberry to create games and artefacts

Children are inspired from all sides to create artwork. Furthermore, sports and childhood cannot begin without one another. The Raspberry Pi has a number of different models that will add more to the gaming experience. For example, if you play with a racing track, you can improve the playing experience by adding controls with the help of the Raspberry Pi. Therefore, how the railway tracks are remotely controlled and monitored in a purely practical environment. Similarly, any model you see around, children can build a well-lit tower with the help of Raspberry Pi. The idea of ​​STEM education is to apply what you learn and make the things you see.

6. Learning the security of data and server-client interactions

It is worth knowing exactly how information reaches both ends of the world at any given time. Children are confused rather than enlightened by textual content. Raspberry Pi models can help children build their own servers, develop a web page, and more, and understand how to plug errors into the flow of information.

7. STEM educational facilities for all

The Raspberry Pi community has been working to raise funds to make computer education more accessible to more students. The inclusion of more schools in the computer education program adds to the idea of ​​using the Raspberry Pi. Children need to prepare them for future jobs in order to become a computer pro, but the lack of educational resources leaves many with this idea that many students and even schools. Therefore, through crowdsourcing and a greater understanding of the essentials of computer education, this idea is being propagated far and wide.

Serving Up Raspberry Pi in Education

Introduce technology and computer science basics by treating students to a heaping slice of Raspberry Pi in education.

These days, March 14 is not the only pie in the STEM kitchen. Although it combines images of delicious fruit-based dessert, the use of raspberry pie in education supports STEM-for-all efforts by teaching the basics of technology. Raspberry Pi’s development began in 2006, when Eben Upton attempted to develop a smaller computer that would facilitate computer-science education, leading to the development of a single-board product. Six years later, The Raspberry Pi Foundation released the original device – the Model B – a small, original motherboard, the size of a credit card.

Over the next six years, the latest raspberry pie designs have entered the market, although the simplicity remains the same. By providing bare-bones computers to students, the organization provides a foundation on which teachers and students can build raspberry pie education and expertise in computer science.

Cooking Up Ideas in Teacher Training

Although the Raspberry Pi Foundation encourages student engagement in computer science, the organization fully recognizes the need to educate teachers about the introduction of Raspberry Pi into education. In addition to its student publication The Magpoy, the Raspberry Pi Foundation has published the Digital Teacher Edition. From insights into how the Creator Movement affects the Education Academy, Magpie Educator’s Editions help teachers who have included Raspberry Pi in their classrooms.

Teachers are also invited to apply for a position at Pick Academy, which hosts a maximum of 40 teachers over two days exploring the digital aspects of the producer movement. Upon completion of the pic ademy, teachers receive Raspberry Pi certification, enabling Raspberry Pi to expand their education by organizing Raspberry Jam, participating in Raspberry Pi forums, and developing curriculum. Allows for support.

Not only teachers at the Raspberry Pi initiative, but British ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Tim Peak has teamed up with Raspberry Pi to promote children’s participation in the competition they use on Astro Pi’s request for the design of experiments. By giving students of the International Space Station team the chance to win experiments, Peak and The Raspberry Pi Foundation have been able to build interest in STEM and create discussion among students for these valuable tools.

Raspberry Pi devices start at around $ 25 and there are various accessories available. When using Raspberry Pi in education, it is important to remember that these devices were developed to provide a basic understanding of computer science. Some users find that tools are slow, but the benefit to students is still very strong. By introducing students to Raspberry Pi, teachers are opening up a new world of computer science to children.

REAL-LIFE PROJECT IN AN EDUCATION COURSE

In this course, students had to create a functional GPS tracker for the car with a web application. Students are divided into two groups based on their choice. The group built on the Raspberry Pi Zero focuses on GPS tracker hardware. Raspberry Pi’s main programming language is Python, as there are many libraries written in Python for the Raspberry Pi, which are of course useful. Students had to assemble and program the hardware to send data to the Web API via GPRS.

The second group is the web application program, which includes an API for car, user, device and driver administration, live maps, travel lists, user groups and GPS trackers. This is the case with ASP.NET and AngularJS since both are very popular methods for building websites and providing many libraries and tutorials. The students are given a named HTML template. Null is included in the product.

COMPONENTS AND MODULES USED DURING EDUCATION COURSE

We decided to use the Raspberry Pi Zero for our project because it is a flexible, low-cost board suitable for the project. But to successfully develop placenta production, different modules and components are required [15]. Most Arduino modules are compatible with Raspberry Pi.

Creating a functional GPS tracker for cars requires a GPS module to get current, a GSM module to send data to the server, a strip that leads to the status of the device, and the switch from business trip to user.

GPS module

The Ublox NEO-7M GPS module has been chosen primarily for its low price point and its reliability. It offers a built-in high-gain antenna, can power directly from the Raspberry Pi and supports the NMEA communication protocol with a default 9600 serial baud rate. This module can be connected via UART Serial IIC or TTL. It also has a built-in RTC, which helps.

  1. GSM module

The A6 GSM / GPRS module is a low-cost quad-band module that supports standard AT and TCP / IP command interfaces. It supports a maximum 42,8Kbps upload rate, which is sufficient for the project. It can be operated directly from the Raspberry Pi and communicate with the board via the UART Serial IIC. The default serial baud rate may be 9600 or 115200.

EDUCATION MODEL PROPOSAL

The proposed educational model is composed of: 

• Promotion of an interesting real-life like a project, which will be aimed at both hardware and programming skills; • Depending on the project, students should be divided into groups, each solving different part of the project (either hardware or software);

 • The project should be divided into simpler tasks which could be solved on a weekly basis;

• A possible motivation for the students in the form of an experience and also some extra points for good work.

In order to keep track of the tasks and provide the necessary help, git repository was created for the whole project. Students

L. Vokorokos et al. • The Raspberry Pi in an Education Process

are usually used to working with git and this way they can collaboratively work on the project in groups. Their mentor can comment on their code, provide necessary help and also give another task to the students.

  1. Group 1: Raspberry GPS tracker

Raspberry Pi Zero is provided with the modules and components required for the RST group of components. His tasks in rest are simple, for example, connect GPS modules and receive regular readings. When they are done, they are given the task to create an application for the Raspberry Pi, capable of receiving regular GPS readings, calculating maximum and average speeds, tracking actual travel conditions and sending data. Server in base 64 format with GSM module. They need to implement some security measures to keep the app safe, so the project uses HMAC to sign every message sent to the server.

  • Group 2: Web application

The second group was bigger, so they were able to build more robust web applications. His works include building individual parts of the application with MVC architectural models. From the task, to build the database model, from the provided physical data model. Then they implemented the entity framework for ASP.NET, which required the creation of controllers for different user types. Provided with an HTML template running on Angular, students can further enhance their application to let them know how to build their front end controller in Angular. The main admin view includes the following:

• Vehicle status report with service intervals, 

• Live map with current vehicle positions,

• Journey logs with map and statistics for every journey,

• Vehicle management,

• fueling list for vehicles, • driver management,

 • User management with the option to edit individual profiles,

• Basic settings for the application.

Mathematica

Wolfram Research, founded by Stephen Wolfram, developed and released Mathematica in 1988 to solve computational problems by using a graphical user interface (GUI) (Wolfram Research, 2017b). Wolfram’s core product has been developed as a software platform to perform a large number of computations in the scientific, engineering, mathematical and computing fields, complete with its own syntax language. Software engine can create visualizations, data analysis, geometric calculations or machine learning. Mathematics, as of July 2017, is available through a cloud subscription or standalone desktop license and is priced at 75 575 per year or 1 1,150 per install machine, including updates and support (Wolfram Research, 2017d).

The use of mathematics is prevalent in higher education and is not limited to computer science, engineering, mathematics and physics. Previous research has cited the use of interactive simulations in chemical engineering curricula (Falconer and Nicodemus, 2014), enhancing student outcomes in linear algebra (Rahmavati et al., 2017) and studying projectile motion in physics. 2013).

Raspberry Pi Meets Mathematica

In 2013, Wolfram Research released its mathematical software as a free license, running the Raspberry Pi-approved Linux distribution (Wolfram). As researchers seek to build a knowledge base in educational systems, it allows anyone with a credit-card-sized device to access the computation platform. While the Raspberry Pi Mathematica works, it has limitations due to the lack of CPU power and the amount of RAM available compared to the regular desktop. To perform calculations with improved response times, multiple raspberry paste is required by the clustering feature of mathematics. By combining Mathematica’s feature-set and Raspberry Paste’s open and low-cost platform, multi-note clusters can be built to increase processing and response time.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The presented educational scheme has been successfully tested in the educational process. As the questionnaire suggested, the course was very successful among the students in attendance. Increasing interest in micro-controllers and the control of older people of Raspberry or Arduino technology have resulted in things, finished materials, work variation — cultured and used hardware. The other group was also interested in the subject because of their ambitions to become professional web developers. This course helps to provide students with the education they need to get more employment in the required qualification. Such students can also be used as a bachelor’s or master’s thesis for single students. To further enhance the compatibility of undergraduates, more courses are needed that successfully demonstrate the actual and advanced use of the technology presented.

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